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Published Paper


Tourism Management Perspectives

Tourism Management Perspectives

Tourism and gender (in)equality: Global evidence

Canh Phuc Nguyen


Nguyễn Phúc Cảnh

Cảnh Nguyễn


This study investigates the nexus between tourism development and gender (in)equality in a global sample of 111 economies from 1995 to 2017. Notably, this study (i) examines mutual relationships between the two factors, and (ii) carries out a comprehensive and inclusive analysis of three kinds of tourism (domestic, outbound, and international), using two measures (spending, and number of tourists) and four dimensions of gender (in)equality (employment, education, health, and rights). First, there is a mutual relationship between tourism development and gender (in)equality. Second, domestic tourism spending, visitor spending, and number of tourist arrivals generally appear to improve gender equality in employment, education, and rights. However, outbound tourism spending seems to increase gender inequality in employment and rights. In turn, gender equality likely stimulates travel activities in terms of both spending and number of tourists.

Canh Phuc Nguyen (2022), "Tourism and gender (in)equality: Global evidence", Tourism Management Perspectives, 41, pp. 100933, DOI: 10.1016/j.tmp.2021.100933

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